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GUT Picture1










"All disease begins in the gut" - Hippocrates


Direct symptoms








Diarrohea (more than 3-4 BM per day or loose stools)


Constipation (less than 1 BM/day)


Straining, haemorroids


Undigested food in stools


Floating , pale stools


Abdominal pain



Indirect symptoms




Brian fog




Skin Problems


Headaches & migraines


Joint pain




Depression, anxiety




Autoimmune conditions


Weight gain (it’s been shown that overweight people have different gut bacteria to lean people)


Signs your digestion may not working at it's best......

Our digestive system has two primary purposes:


1. Breaks food into nutrients, which are then absorbed to provide us with energy.


2. Serves as a barrier system that protects us and keeps foreign substances from getting inside the bloodstream and the body.


Also did you know that

- Our digestive system contains 100,000,000,000,000 bacteria (around 1.5kg) (known as our microbiome) and because our gut bacteria eat what we eat, bacterial communities differ from person to person.


- We have a nervous system in our guts and have more nerve cells there than in our spinal cords! The same neurotransmitters (serotonin, GABA etc) are found in the gut as in our brains so this may be where the term 'gut feeling' comes from and starts to explain the gut-brain link



© Sandra James 2017

What could be causing these symptoms?


1. Low stomach acid & bile/enzyme insufficiency

The stomach produces hydrochloric acid, which aids the chemical breakdown of food and the absorption of nutrients and protects against pathogens.  If the stomach acid is low this  can lead to undigested food and bacterial overgrowth, which in turn causes production of gases that put pressure

Problems in the stomach will often lead to problems further down the GI tract.


2. SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrwoth)  

SIBO is defined as the presence of excessive bacteria in the small intestine. It develops when the normal homeostatic mechanisms that control small intestinal bacterial populations are disrupted.  Symptoms of SIBO are diverse, nonspecific, and not limited to the gut.


3. Infections (parasites, bacteria)

Symptoms associated with parasitosis are often general and nonspecific. They vary from fatigue and malaise to GI distress, diarrhea, and constipation to things like brain fog, sleep disturbance, or skin issues.  (Patients may have NO GI symptoms)

Some bacteria can colonize the GI tract for extended periods of time, such as H. pylori.


4. Dysbiosis & fungal overgrowth

Dysbiosis is a situation where there’s an underrepresentation of beneficial microbes and an overrepresentation of harmful microbes..  For example, Candida is a normal resident of the human gastrointestinal tract. However, Candida can become overrepresented when levels of beneficial microbes that protect against that colonization are low.


5. Food intolerances

In many cases, food intolerances are a consequence of gut issues such as disrupted gut microbiome, SIBO, or intestinal permeability. However, food intolerances can also cause problems like intestinal permeability. Thus, food intolerances may need to be addressed independently.


Functional Testing that I offer

Stool testing/SIBO breath tresting/organic acids and blood testing for food intolerances


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